In Algebra 2 & Pre-calculus, you studied transformation of functions. Now in Calculus, we will use these ideas of function transformation a lot as we consider the curviness of each point on the curve.
Transformations Cheat Sheet can help as you recall how each transformation works.
The video from Mr. Germanis explains this process, however the Khan Academy video (linked below too) is a set of 4 videos that explains WHY the transformations always work using these shortcuts. It is to your benefit to review this learning through these videos.